tar program is used to create and manipulate
You can use
tar on previously created archives to extract files, to store additional files, or
to update or list files which were already stored. Initially,
tar archives were used to store
files on magnetic tape. The name comes from this use; it stands for tape
tar archives are given names ending with
.tar'. Often, people refer to
tar archives as "tar files," and archive members as
"files". The three most frequently used operations are
-x'). Two frequently used
-v'). To place
orange into an archive named
fruits.tar, use the following command.
$ tar --create --file=fruits.tar apple banana orange
If you include the
tar will list the files it is working on.
$ tar --create --verbose --file=fruits.tar apple banana orange
Eventually, you will probably want to use short forms of options. Here is what the previous example looks like using short option forms.
$ tar -cvf fruits.tar apple banana orange
You can determine exactly what a particular archive contains.
$ tar --list --file=fruits.tar
To extract an entire archive, use:
$ tar -xvf fruits.tar
You can extract specific files from the archive file.
$ tar --extract --file=fruits.tar banana
Compressing files makes them smaller and storing it such that the file can be restored.
Linux provides several tools to compress files, the most common is
gzip. Each file is replaced
by one with the extension '
.gz'. By default,
gzip keeps the original file name in
the compressed file.
$ gzip banana
Compressed files can be restored to their original form using
$ gunzip banana
There is another pair of commands that operate identically to
bunzip2. You can recognize these files because they have a
.bz' or '
.bz2' extension instead of '
.gz'. The standard Microsoft
archiving utility is the
zip file. It is well supported in Linux by the
unzip. The default mode of
zip is to add files to an archive and compress it. The
first argument in the command line is the name of the archive to be operated on. After that, is a list of
files to be added.