Major open source applications
The Linux ecosystem has a wide variety of desktop applications. The basic productivity applications known as an office suite are very important. LibreOffice is a successor to OpenOffice.org, commonly known as OpenOffice, which in turn was based on StarOffice. Today, LibreOffice is by far the most active continuation of the OpenOffice.org. Also, it is included by default in many Linux distributions. LibreOffice is compatible with a wide range of document formats such as Microsoft's Word (.doc, .docx), Excel (.xls, .xlsx), PowerPoint (.ppt, .pptx) and its native support for the Open Document Format (ODF). You can export your work in many different formats including PDF. LibreOffice is a powerful and free office suite that includes Writer (word processing), Calc (spreadsheets), Impress (presentations), Draw (vector graphics and flowcharts), Base (databases), and Math (formula editing). Thunderbird is a free and open source email and calendaring client, that's easy to set up and customize. Thunderbird is an independent project with its legal and financial home at the Mozilla Foundation. The Mozilla Foundation is also the sole shareholder in the maker of Firefox, the Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser that is fast, feature rich, and have excellent support for web developers. Firefox is included by default in many Linux distributions. For the creative types, there is GIMP. GIMP is an acronym for GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a free program for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring.
Nextcloud and ownCloud are open source file sync and share software. They provide a file synchronization and sharing solution on servers that you control. Today, most people have their digital life stored on online servers from various companies like Google, Apple, Facebook, Instagram and many others. Some people prefer to have more control over who gets to see their photos or who gets to read their documents. This is where Nextcloud, ownCloud and similar technologies come in. ownCloud was founded by Markus Rex, Holger Dyroff and Frank Karlitschek, but Karlitschek left and founded a new company and project called Nextcloud with some former ownCloud developers.
Linux excels at running server applications because of its reliability and efficiency. One of the early uses of Linux was for web servers. The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is the dominant web server in use today. The Apache HTTP Server is a project of The Apache Software Foundation. Another web server is nginx, pronounced "engine x", originally written by Igor Sysoev. Over 60% of all websites are powered by either nginx or Apache. The most popular databases are MariaDB and MySQL. MariaDB is made by the original developers of MySQL and guaranteed to stay open source. A database stores information and also allows for easy retrieval and querying. The native file sharing protocol for UNIX is NFS (Network File System). For file sharing with Microsoft Windows, Samba is the standard interoperability suite for Linux and Unix. Samba allows a Linux machine to look like a Windows machine so that it can share files and participate in a Windows domain.
In Linux, there are many different package management tools, but the two most popular are
from Debian and Red Hat distributions. Package management tool can install, update or remove software, and
track dependencies between packages. Tracking dependencies ensures that when you install a package, the
system will also install any packages needed by that package to function correctly. Dependencies also
ensure that software updates and removals are performed properly. Debian distribution and its derivatives
use the Debian package manager. For Debian and Debian-derived distributions, software packages are files
ending in '
.deb'. The tool for managing these files is the
makes management of packages even easier. There are other tools as well. The Debian
repositories contains more than 59000 packages of software. To update packages listings
from package repositories, execute
To install packages from repositories with all dependencies, execute
apt install package-name
If you want to install newest versions of all packages currently installed, execute
If you want to remove packages, execute
apt remove package-name
For Red Hat and Red Hat-derived distributions, software packages are files ending in '
The tool most commonly used for '
.rpm' is the
rpm. While the
install, update and remove packages, tools such as
yum automate the process of resolving
dependency issues. If you want to update all packages, execute
To install a package, along with its dependencies, execute
yum install package-name
If you want to remove package, execute
yum remove package-name